The Radiometer and Its Composite Force
L. I. Thompson
I call the radiometer force a composite force as it includes
the deceleration of the rarefied gas molecules in transferring molecular
momentum to give the net acceleration of the radiometer vanes.
In a well balance radiometer the net force exerted could be
transferring the molecular momentum to reach 2000 to 3000 rpm macro vane and
harness momentum. After the transfer of molecular momentum the rarefied
gas molecules become a dead weight until re-energized. In the
complexity of the radiometer rarefied gas reactions is the simplicity of
the vanes and harness rotating in response to the input of energy.
The testing is in a partial vacuum of 100 to 300 microns. I
use a 60w halogen light focused on various weight aluminum strips with carbon
black on one side. The strips were holed to freely move on a horizontal rod.
With the weightier strips, after a little back and forth
movement, the strips would bind on the rod. Yet I observed a 0.002 gm, 1 cm
strip, holed on one end to hang on the rod, that the strip moved first with
agitation and then energetically around and along the rod. Though a small
mass, I found
the centrifugal motion could have a
directional movement. This tending to confirm William Crookes' original
With limited equipment I do not take the testing further. As a
proposal I would next use a test "apparatus" with the
"surfaces" fixed to a
light weight rod. The rod suspended with fine wires. This test would
determine if the net force could be directed to propel such a light weight
The forward movement would be limited by the wire mounting.
Yet I feel the confirmation of a forward movement opens the possibility the
application of a net force might cause the acceleration of a body by using the
inertia of a body itself (rather than the earth) as the "accelerative
A study of the composite net force could include the
energizing of the gas molecules and the deceleration phase of the gas molecules to give the
resulting net vane acceleration. (It would avoid a misconception of the
transfer of molecular momentum to macro momentum.) It would explore the implied
high molecular velocities across the vane surfaces. It would explore why there
is little apparent offsetting back force in the acceleration of the vanes.
It would quantify the efficiency of the transfer of molecular momentum to macro
I feel this further study could bring clarity to the nature of
the radiometer composite net force.
(1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_radiometer ,
August 24, 2015 firstname.lastname@example.org .