The Radiometer and Its Composite Net Force
call the radiometer force a composite force as it includes the deceleration of
the rarefied gas molecules to give the net acceleration of the vanes. In a
well balance radiometer the net force transferred could reach 2000 plus rpm
macro vane momentum. After this transfer the gas molecules become a
dead weight until energized.
testing is in a partial vacuum of 100 to 300 microns. A 60w halogen light
was focused on various weight aluminum strips with carbon black on one side. The
strips were holed to move freely on a horizontal, level rod.
the weightier strips the strips would show a little motion and then bind on the
rod. Yet an approximately 0.002 gm, 1 cm strip, holed on one end to hang on the
rod, moved first with agitation and then energetically around and along the rod. Though
a small mass, I found the centrifugal motion could also have
directional movement, hence tending to support William Crookes' original observations, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_radiometer
feel with proper balancing a larger mass could be made to show forward motion
along a level rod.
noted rotation occurred with larger radiometer type vane surfaces weighing
about 1 gm each as the forward motion of the vanes are "pushed" into a
lower pressure area.
limited equipment I do not take the testing further. As a proposal I would
next use a test "apparatus" with the "surfaces" fixed
to a light weight rod. The rod suspended with fine wires. This test would
determine if the force could be directed to propel such a light weight
"apparatus" forward. The forward movement would be limited by
the wire mounting. Yet I feel the further confirmation of a forward movement
opens wider the possibility the application of a net force might cause the
acceleration of a body by using the inertia of a body (rather than the earth) as
the "accelerative base".
also observe the nearly internalized nature of the force taking place in a
study of the radiometer force would confirm my initial observations. Then
the study could include the energizing and the deceleration phase of the gas
molecules. It could explore the implied high molecular velocities across
the vane surfaces. It would ask why there is little offsetting force in the vane
acceleration. It would quantify as what appears as the high efficiency of
the transfer of molecular energy momentum to macro vane momentum. The study
would focus on the net composite force properties.
The study would avoid an "oversight" of saying a ball bouncing off a wall transfers twice as much momentum as a ball which sticks to the wall. The correction is, except for friction, the momentum stays the same for the bouncing ball. The direction of momentum is changed. The ball which sticks is 100% frictional change in the ball and wall to random molecular motion as heat and then also radiant energy.
physics is also necessary in
demonstrating the properties of the composite force.