The Composite Force of the  Radiometer

L. Thompson

The testing is in the partial vacuum range of  100 to 300 microns. In this range the radiometer vanes and harness, placed in the vacuum chamber as a control check, show a similar response as in a sealed radiometer.

Variables increasing or decrease the net force could be: energy input, atomic weights of the gases, vane spacing, shape and type of the surfaces, and the degree of vacuum. 

In the complexities of the rarefied gas reactions is a simplicity: the radiometer vanes rotate in response to the input of energy or to the taking out of energy.  In the testing  this simplicity is used to show some characteristics of the resulting composite net force. 

I call this net force a composite force because it includes both the deceleration of the rarefied gas molecules and the net macro acceleration imparted into the vanes.

Observations and Testing Notes

1. In a radiometer the net force results in centrifugal acceleration - as the force "pushes" into a lower pressure area. 

2. When the rarefied gas molecules transfer momentum, the gas molecules are cooled, are decelerated, representing the "exhaust side" of the force/power. This cooling takes place with the transfer of molecular momentum into the macro momentum of the vanes. 

3. In the testing the gas molecules are recharged and reused. With the continual input of energy, the gas molecules are trapped to be reused to do work.

4. With a strong halogen, 60w focused light , the vanes spin clockwise then upon cooling spin counter clockwise. Radiant energy now radiated at a faster rate from the carbon black surface, creating an opposite pressure differential.  

This would be similar to the refrigeration effect when a radiometer is taken out of a refrigerator. My understanding of radiant energy is little or no force would be exerted on the radiating mass. Hence it could be possible to also create an imbalance when excess energy would be re-radiated back out of the system to cause the vanes to spin in the opposite, counter clockwise direction.  

I feel this test demonstrates the flexibility range of the variables which can take place in this composite force.

5. I confirmed with a light weight carbonized aluminum strip hanging with an off center hole on a carbon fiber rod that it was possible to move the strip down the rod.  Extrapolating the weight from a larger aluminum strip the weight was about 0.002 grams. The strip moved first with agitation and then rapidly with full circular motions around and down the rod. 

I feel  oscillations are necessary (from high to low pressure areas) to commence movement. This helps explain why I was not able to have heavier strips move along a rod - though a little back and forth movement took place. It helps explain why the much weightier radiometer vanes on the needle pivot spin easily. Yet, except for the lightest strip, the aluminum/carbonized strips mounted on a rod showed little motion due to rod friction preventing oscillations.  

Yet, if needing further confirmation of the necessity for oscillations, the lightest, 0.002 gm aluminum strip with its off center hole spun energetically around and down the rod.  The degree of energizing looked to match the radiometer vanes on the application of a strong energy source.

Although this test requires a small mass, I observe the slip effects could be "channeled" into a directional movement. Because of this observation, I speculate the directional application of a net force from internal means might yet be possible. 

Newtonian physics, which is focused on taking apart and quantifying, could be overlooking the composite nature of the radiometer force. This is why I feel a fuller explanation of the radiometer could require studying the radiometer as a total accelerative process.

Notes 

A.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_radiometer

B. I feel once vane rotation equilibrium is reached, radiant cooling could be sufficient to transfer excess heat out of the system.  Radiant cooling would take place when energy would no longer be able to be transferred into macro momentum.

C. The deceleration of the rarefied gas molecules (a dead weight until re-energized) is being "masked" by the net macro acceleration of the vanes and harness. 

 Last edited 11/26/2014. Thanks David for "pushing" me to run the testing.  lance@pon.net