The Radiometer and Its Composite Net Force

I call the radiometer force a composite force as it includes the deceleration of the rarefied gas molecules to give the net acceleration of the vanes. In a well balance radiometer the net force transferred could reach 2000 plus rpm macro vane momentum.  After this transfer the gas molecules become  a dead weight until energized. 

The testing is in a partial vacuum of 100 to 300 microns. A 60w halogen light was focused on various weight aluminum strips with carbon black on one side. The strips were holed to move freely on a horizontal, level rod.

With the weightier strips the strips would show a little motion and then bind on the rod. Yet an approximately 0.002 gm, 1 cm strip, holed on one end to hang on the rod, moved first with agitation and then energetically around and along the rod. Though a small mass,  I found the centrifugal motion could  also have directional movement, hence tending to support William Crookes' original observations,  .

I feel with proper balancing a larger mass could be made to show forward motion along a level rod. 

I noted rotation occurred with larger radiometer type vane surfaces weighing  about 1 gm each as the forward motion of the vanes are "pushed" into a lower pressure area.

With limited equipment I do not take the testing further. As a proposal  I would next use a test "apparatus" with the "surfaces"  fixed to a light weight rod. The rod suspended with fine wires. This test would determine if the force could be directed to propel such a light weight "apparatus" forward.  The forward movement would be limited by the wire mounting. Yet I feel the further confirmation of a forward movement opens wider the possibility the application of a net force might cause the acceleration of a body by using the inertia of a body (rather than the earth) as the "accelerative base". 

I also observe the nearly internalized nature of the force taking place in a radiometer.

Further study of the radiometer force would confirm my  initial observations. Then the study  could include the energizing and the deceleration phase of the  gas molecules.  It could explore the implied high molecular velocities across the vane surfaces. It would ask why there is little offsetting force in the vane acceleration. It would quantify as what appears as the high efficiency of the transfer of molecular energy momentum to macro vane momentum. The study would focus on the net composite force properties.

The study would avoid an "oversight" of saying a ball bouncing off a wall transfers twice as much momentum as a ball which sticks to the wall. The correction is, except for friction, the momentum stays the same for the bouncing ball. The direction of momentum is changed. The ball which sticks is 100% frictional change in the ball and wall to random molecular motion as heat and then also radiant energy.  

Understanding basic physics is  also necessary in demonstrating the properties of the composite force.  I am presently thinking of other ways to demonstrate these properties.

January 23, 2016,