The Radiometer and Its Composite Force

I call the radiometer force a composite force as it includes the deceleration of the rarefied gas molecules in transferring molecular momentum to give the net acceleration of the vanes. In the complexity of the radiometer rarefied gas reactions I also note the simplicity of the vanes rotating in response to the input of energy.

In a well balance radiometer the net force could be transferring the molecular energy momentum to reach 2000 plus rpm macro vane momentum.  After this transfer the gas molecules become  a dead weight until energized. 

The testing is in a partial vacuum of 100 to 300 microns. A 60w halogen light was focused on various weight aluminum strips with carbon black on one side. The strips were holed to move freely on a horizontal, level rod.

With the weightier strips the strips would show a little motion and would then bind on the rod. Yet I observed an approximately 0.002 gm, 1 cm strip, holed on one end to hang on the rod, that the strip moved first with agitation and then energetically around and along the rod.  Though a small mass,  I found the centrifugal motion could  have directional movement. This tending to confirm William Crookes' original observations. (1)   

(This is almost as a special case to determine the possibility of a forward motion. It is my feeling with proper equipment and balancing that a larger mass could be made to show forward motion on a level rod. I also note standard radiometer vane rotation occurred with larger radiometer type vane surfaces of about 1 gm. )

With limited equipment I do not take the testing further. As a proposal  I would next use a test "apparatus" with the "surfaces"  fixed to a light weight rod. The rod suspended with fine wires. This test would determine if the force could be directed to propel such a light weight "apparatus" forward.  The forward movement would be limited by the wire mounting. Yet I feel the further confirmation of a forward movement could open the possibility the application of a net force might cause the acceleration of a body by using the inertia of a body (rather than the earth) as the "accelerative base". 

Further study of the radiometer force would first confirm my above observation. Then the study  would follow to include the energizing and the deceleration phase of the  gas molecules to give the resulting vane acceleration.  It would explore the implied high molecular velocities across the vane surfaces. It would explore why there is little apparent offsetting back force in the vane acceleration.  It would quantify the efficiency of the transfer of molecular energy momentum to macro momentum. 

Physics is often focused on the taking apart and quantifying. In contrast the study of the radiometer force would look at the radiometer as a total process in transferring  energy to macro momentum.



In another paper I propose a composite type force could be the "dark energy" contributing to accelerative expansion. .  

November 22, 2015 L.Thompson